Piet Beertema's web site




|  internet is not internet  |

In todays common speak 'internet' has become synonymous to 'www'. That is: for most Dutch people and media. It's however as wrong as calling a road-system a 'car', for no other reason than that cars are the main 'applications' on the road-system. In reality however, and so in my story below, 'internet' stands for the network connecting computers worldwide, speaking the same "language": IP (Internet Protocol). And 'www' is no more than one of the key applications running on this internet, with e-mail even today still rivaling it. So if you talk to me about 'internet', be sure to refer to the Right Thing, or you'll find yourself in Deep Trouble. :-)



|  web browser  |

Contrary to popular habit - in particular on lots of commercial sites - this website has not been, eh... "optimized" for one specific browser (read: made inaccessible for - or non-functional with - other browsers). Therefore it can be viewed with just any browser, including text-only ones. The use of Internet Explorer however is strongly discouraged.



|  whoami  |

Most important: I was born! In Amsterdam (52°22'37.60"N, 4°51'26.30E), on 22 October 1943, around 04:05 (local time, GMT +0100), to be modestly precise. ;-)
 
My father and mother were both teachers, which may well explain some of my character traits. ;-) After elementary school (Pieter Oosterleeschool) and finishing Gymnasium-β (Hervormd Lyceum Zuid) - school names given here for those searching for former class/school mates (klas/schoolgenoten) - I spent a short and boring period studying electrical engineering at the Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven (Technical University Eindhoven), only to find that Eindhoven was a very boring place and that merely studying wasn't my way of "getting something done in life" and heavily collided with my leaning towards experimenting and my do-it-yourself attitude. Which is why I broke off my study and started looking for a job, which by sheer coincidence I found shortly thereafter. At that time I obviously had no idea whatsoever what this eventually would lead to...
 
In 1965 I took my first job at the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory, where I first met with the thing called "computer". By modern standards that machine (an Elliott 803-B) was a truly exceptional contraption: 39-bits, 8 Kw memory (8 K 39-bit words, that is, so roughly 40 KByte), a separate floating-point processor (!), 500 chars per second (!) papertape readers, tape units using sprocketed 35 mm magnetic "film" (right, exactly the same format as used in 'analog' 35 mm photo cameras; click on the picture to see a presentation movie, and note the magnetic "film" reel on top of the tape unit), but a speed that was, well... low: a single-core 3 GHz Pentium 4 (which itself has already entered the state of obsolescence many years ago) was roughly 1,000,000 times faster... Yet that Elliott machine was - successfully! - used in the design of airplanes.
 
After one year at the Aerospace Lab, I started working on 1 September 1966 at the Mathematical Centre, later - when informatics had become a science of its own next to and with strong connections to mathematics - renamed to CWI (for Dutch people: CWI is the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, which has nothing to do with the former Arbeidsbureau that later grabbed the same abbreviation). The first computer I worked with there was about 20 times faster than the Elliott. And what was especially interesting about that computer, the Electrologica X1, was that it was developed and built by the Mathematical Centre, which since 1950 had been developing and building experimental computers (see also the article "Computers ontwerpen, toen" by Carel Scholten, in Dutch), starting with the ARRA (a machine working with electro-mechanical relays) and ending with the X1; Electrologica was the Mathematical Center's spin-off company that took over the building and marketing of the X1. Together they developed a complete range of computers, culminating in the Electrologica X8 mainframe computer, a machine designed specifically to run Algol 60.
 
In the 1960's "computer" was in fact synonymous to "mainframe", and they were hellishly expensive. The time of personal computers, GIGAbytes of memory and TERAbytes disk space, and that all fitting into a desktop sized box (compare that to the hard disk shown here: a 80 MEGAbyte disk unit from about 1980!), 'Unix' and 'Windows, N(o)T(echnology)' was still lightyears away.
 
Until my retirement in 2004 I've been working at CWI, as systems programmer, systems manager, network manager, and several other disguises, with strong emphasis on networking, as will become clear from the following:
 
In the networking area I've been deeply involved in the setup of European networking, as the central technical manager of what later became EUnet, and networking in the Netherlands, through my involvement in the Dutch EUnet branch which later became NLnet (in April 1998 renamed to UUnet Nederland).
 
The central machine in this European network initially was a Digital VAX 11/780 (serial number 38!), called 'mcvax' (Mathematical Centre VAX). For establishing the first (inter)national links we used autodialers (see picture), which in those days were illegal and therefore had to be smuggled to other countries, an activity also known as "working ahead of the law"... ;-) (The autodialers then had a price tag of about 1200 euro's, and the functionality provided by them nowadays is built into every 10-euro modem). In those days, making computers communicate over long distances was a far from trivial exercise, witness this Usenet article that I posted on July 31, 1982. The cause of the problem described in that posting later turned out to be a quirk in our autodialers: they were found to produce a "notification tone" that happened to fall within - and thus spoil - one of the modem's signal carrier bands. Cutting out one resistor solved the problem...
As the network expanded and the traffic grew, the name 'mcvax' was transferred to new machines taking over the core role, until eventually a SUN got that role and the name was changed into 'mcsun', although in its function as gateway between EUnet and EARN/BITNET it kept the by then already famous name 'MCVAX'.
 
Initially (inter)national networking was based on the UUCP communication protocol built into every flavor of Unix (which is why my first e-mail address was mcvax!piet). Later, when we moved to the TCP/IP (Internet) protocols, networking started to cover a wild variety of systems.
 
The first national, international and intercontinental UUCP connections were established around 1982. The first open transatlantic Internet connectivity ("open" as opposed to "private" links, mainly for military and military-related purposes, like SATNET) for Europe started here at CWI, on 17 November 1988. The confirmation came in a (forwarded) ultra-short and ultra-cryptic e-mail message from the NSFnet boss. The US counterpart was 'seismo', which in turn connected to NSFnet, which in those days stood for "the Internet". Physically the line terminated only a few meters from my office. Later the US end was moved to UUnet. It was only a few days later that this CWI/EUnet-US internet connection was followed by a NORDUnet-US connection. And both networks were very happy that their connections weren't established just a few weeks earlier, since it was on November 2, 1988, that the dreaded Morris worm, the first of its kind, hit the Internet. By sheer "luck" our networks narrowly escaped this worm and the damage caused by it... A few months later, in early 1989, an internet connection was established between NORDUnet and CWI/EUnet, one purpose of it being that their respective US connections would act as backup for each other.
Very soon these developments sparked a lot of activity amongst parties actively involved in the IP "scene". One of the first joint actions undertaken was the initiative in May 1989 to form a common European organisation for the coordination of IP activities in Europe, called "RIPE": 11 organisations were represented at the first meeting. Needless to say that all of them were anti-OSI and that their common goal was to spread Internet connectivity throughout Europe.
 
In the period that I've been involved in this all, transatlantic speed went up from 300 bit/s (!) to 256 kbit/s, and it's still ever increasing... In that time, even for academic/research sites like CWI getting access to the "Internet" (in fact we're talking here about ARPAnet, and later NSFnet) was far from trivial, requiring a lot of lobbying and "patrons".
Rick Adams, Steve Wolff, Steve Goldstein In particular Rick Adams of the Center for Seismic Studies (later of UUnet), and Steve Wolff and Steve Goldstein of the US National Science Foundation have been of great help in this. None of us could foresee though how dramatically the situation with the Internet would change later, in only a few years time, and how "commercially spoiled" it would become...
Also some companies should be mentioned here, which contributed hardware to the early European and Dutch part of the UUCP network and Internet, and in doing so to its success: Digital Equipment, Sun Microsystems, Hewlett Packard and Cisco Systems (the router contributed by Cisco was one of the first - if not the first - in Europe; and for Cisco this contribution became a key, if not the key, to their success in Europe). Apart from these contributions, EUnet has been self-supporting right from the start. For a 'look behind the curtain' you may want to read the Stockholm paper, a document written for a conference in Stockholm in 1987.
 
It was a crazy time, those early days. Can you imagine being invited to fly from CWI in Amsterdam to Olivetty Headquarters in Italy and being picked up by limousine from the airport, and that all for installing UUCP on their machines?!? Still that is what happened to me. Nowadays any luser can install UUCP in half a minute... There were less funny things too, though, and we had to fight many a battle for our case. Some of them were lost (e.g. the founder and owner of ARPAnet, DARPA, refused us access to their, for that time phenomenally fast 56 kbit/s (military) SATNET link), some won (like the one with AT&T, that refused to send us their bills via air mail, so we got them 6 weeks after they were sent, and within 4 weeks AT&T claimed that we didn't pay the bills and threatened to cut our transatlantic line...).
It was in a later stage the European Commission refused to have anything to do with "non-standard" (read: not cooked up by "official" telecom standards bodies like the ITU) protocols like TCP/IP and instead wasted millions of European taxpayers' money in "promoting" (read: enforcing) "OSI networking" (X.25 and X.400), a battle eventually won by the end users who insisted on real connectivity and thus on TCP/IP. For your amusement here are 2 links to OSI-related fun, a poem on OSI and alternatives to OSI. The sad side of this story was that this "protocol war", carried out vehemently by the European Commission and 'RARE', an "umbrella organization" of a couple of national R&D networks in Europe, effectively put those networks arrear, since they were forced to take the futureless OSI track and were actively blocked from Internet access, even when that was already available through EUnet and CWI. It took more than a year before universities in Holland could use Internet, and that happened only after SURFnet management had decided to take a practical approach and use both OSI and TCP/IP. In other countries it took much longer, and in particular in Germany it took years before their R&D network (DFN) finally realized that they were on dead track with their OSI addiction. And eventually even the EC gave up on it... Of course we had also active partners in "practical TCP/IP crime", like NORDUnet, the R&D network in the Nordic countries, and HEPnet/CERN, through the excellent cooperation with our neighbor institute Nikhef.
This all happened long before "Internet" became a buzzword and "internet" became a supermarket item. And now we have reached the in fact crazy situation where phone companies offer phone services over the Internet, eh... over internet: 'VoIP' (Voice over IP. For the technically oriented it should be obvious that not VoIP, but TCP should have been used for this; after all it's an acronym for Telephone Conversation Protocol. :-)
 
Long before this all, April 25, 1986, still in the "UUCP period" (in that time UUCP was the standard protocol for communication between Unix systems), CWI, in the person of undersigned, registered the NL top level domain, in the framework of its international and national networking activities. I managed .NL all on my own until 31 January 1996, when Boudewijn Nederkoorn of SURFnet, Ted Lindgreen of NLnet, and myself on behalf of CWI, set up a separate foundation, (Stichting Internet Domeinregistratie Nederland or SIDN), to take over the management of .NL. This had become a sheer necessity due to the explosive growth of the number of domains (see graph) - and thus my workload - and the rapid commercialisation of the Internet. But it would still last until January 1997 before SIDN took over the actual registration work, which I'd been doing all on my own ever since the registration of the NL domain. From the start I was one of the board members of SIDN, but in May 2002 I handed over this function to "younger stuff". But until this very day I have some sort of special relationship with SIDN, bearing the - purely honorary - title of "Bijzonder Raadgever" (Special Counsellor). SIDN has grown to over 40 employees and a turnover of € 11 million (figures 2007).
 
After 10 years, in 1993, my involvement in both EUnet and NLnet came to an end, but my alias godfather@EU.net still lives on! And the real old networkers (and the Pentagon...) will still remember my 1 April 1984 kremvax!chernenko alias.... (And here's a link to a collection of April Fools on the Net throughout the years).
 
In the course of time I've been involved in various working groups, committees, etc. on networking topics, both on national and international scale, amongst others of SURFnet (the Dutch national research network) and RIPE (the European regional IP registry). I even managed to produce a real RFC (1537, now obsolete, like so many standards). :-)
 
Last, but certainly not least, on 9 June 1999 I was completely taken by surprise when I received a Royal Decoration (in Dutch: "Ridder in de Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw") for doing apparently useful things; but even that couldn't make me loose my humour. :-)
 
Since "casting the net" has always been a collective effort, I'd like to share this honor with my former colleagues Teus Hagen, Jaap Akkerhuis, Jim McKie, and Daniel Karrenberg (later one of the founders of RIPE); with Ted Lindgreen, founder of NLnet (with 'more than a little bit' of pressure from CWI ;-)); and with people in many other countries in Europe and abroad. In the latter category I'd like to specifically mention Armando Stettner (USA/'decvax'), Dan Lorenzini (USA/'philabs'), Rick Adams (USA/'seismo'), Tohru Asami (Japan/'kddlabs'), and Robert Elz (Australia/'munnari'). And special thanks go to Keld Simonsen (Denmark/'diku') for providing us all with the necessary vital energy through his constant supply of 'Daim' candy bars at the EUnet backbone meetings. :-)
 
BTW, it's interesting to note that such a small seed - just a few people interested in, and having a need for, "networking" - eventually led to Amsterdam becoming a focal point on the information superhighway: the Amsterdam Internet Exchange or AMS-IX started on the WCW campus, next to CWI. Its largest branch is still located there and is still growing; so much so that the sidewalks there may soon be half a meter above road level, because of the massive bundles of data cables underneath them. ;-) The AMS-IX has become one of the largest internet switching points in the world, and their 10-year traffic statistics overview give a good impression of the explosive growth of internet traffic. Interestingly, AMS-IX's policy is the same as that of the early starters of networking: neutral, independent and not-for-profit.
 
At CWI I've also been involved in more recent networking developments:
Started with experiments in 1993 in cooperation with other research institutes, a 155 Mbit/s ATM network was installed at CWI comprising some 100+ workstations and servers, over an all-fibre-optic network,with some servers having multiple 155 Mbps links. However, due to the rapid development and deployment of Fast Ethernet and, more recently, Gigabit Ethernet, and the high cost of ATM equipment, ATM has quickly become obsolete in the last year or so. In these years the speed of our main Internet connnection (to/via SURFnet) rose to 155 Mbit/s too, initially via ATM, later via POS (Packet Over Sonet). But that wasn't the end of our Need for Speed: in July 2000 CWI entered a new "speed era", when a new core switch/router with Gigabit-speed ports was installed, with our core servers having single or multiple 1 Gbit/s links to it. At the same time our SURFnet connection was upgraded to 1 Gbit/s. Wow! ;-) And in 2005, the year after my retirement, 10 Gbit/s had already become sort of a commodity...
 
It's also interesting to make a comparison here between the ends of the networking speed spectrum over our "networking history":
In 1983 CWI installed its first ethernet: 10 Mbit/s shared, over a yellow coax-cable that old computernerds will still remember. Lots of people declared us insane, because "we would never ever be able to fully use this immense bandwidth". Within a couple of years however 10 Mbit/s shared just didn't suffice anymore to meet the ever increasing traffic and speed demands, so 10 Mbit/s switched was the next step, which in turn was soon followed by 100 Mbit/s (switched) ethernet. And in the decades that passed since the early networking days, the speed of CWI's external connection went up from three hundred  to ten billion bits per second... It's interesting to note that in that period the speed at the high end of the range has gone up from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Gbit/s, or a 10000-fold increase, whereas in the same period the speed at the low (consumer) end has gone up from 300 bit/s to 40-50 Mbit/s, a 150000-fold increase! What's next? Here the story takes a turn. Whereas the Netherlands have long been leading in bringing internet to the masses, it has been overtaken by a country like Sweden. As of 2012 home connections of 1 Gbit/s are already available there, whereas here the fastest home connection is 200 Mbit/s; and even that lower speed is more expensive than the 1 Gbit/s in Sweden...
 
The last couple of years before my retirement I spent part of my time working in a completely new environment: CWI's Personnel Department (now P&O), managing their computers and creating a web site for it. Not only was this environment new and quite unrelated to what I was used too, it was interesting too, being an all-girls department. ;-) The picture shows most of the gang. You may be wondering why I'm looking so bloody serious in such cute company; well, so do I...
 
But it's all over and history. Well, in a sense. After a farewell symposium on September 16, 2004, where Rick Adams presented an interesting view on transatlantic networking history, I entered the state of enlightenment and rest called "retirement". Well... rest? Hm. I'd rather call it the next phase of restlessness. I've plenty of things to do, and staying away from computers would have an effect not unlike stopping to breathe.
 
That "plenty to do" already started before my retirement: in May 2003 I became volunteer at the Cruquius museum. Part of my work comprised of kicking the museum into the computer and internet era, but most of it consisted of maintaining, as member of a group of technicians, a magnificent piece of 19th-century state-of-the-art hardware: the world-famous Cruquius steam engine, the largest steam engine ever built. And in April 2010 the extreme makeover was complete, when I became curator of another steam museum: Stoomgemaal Halfweg (Halfweg steam pumping station), also from the 19th century, but - as opposed to the Cruquius - with a still operational steam engine and - manually operated! - coal-fired steam boiler.
 
If, after reading all of the above, you might think that I'm utterly proud of myself, then that perception needs some serious correction.*) I've enjoyed most of my working life, I've had my share of fun, and I'm really glad that I've "seen it all happen" and that I've been actively involved in a development that has had such a profound impact on society, and that for millions of people has become an integral part of life. But I really wasn't the only one, far from that, and all players deserve credit. And for that matter: blame, for making spam possible. ;-)
 
Let's reflect a brief moment on what caused the internet to grow so explosively to its current state. Several factors, all having taken place within a relatively short timespan, have contributed to that:
•  A - this time positive - action from the European Commission to break the monopolies of the national PTT's, resulting in a steep decline of the costs of telephone calls and leased lines.
•  A judgment by the European Court (1985) that national PTT's could no longer forbid third party traffic over leased lines. Where such a prohibition was part of national legislation, that legislation had to be changed.
•  The advent of fiber optics, which tremendously increased the speed at which data could be carried over (long) cables.
•  The invention of the World Wide Web (1990) by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, who "married hypertext to the Internet", and the development of the NCSA Mosaic web browser (1992) by Mark Andreessen that popularized the Web. WWW has become application #2 right after e-mail.
•  The activities of (in Holland) groups like Knoware and XS4ALL ("the day we started, before 7:00 pm 500 customers had subscribed"), set up to provide the "common user" with e-mail, and later internet, access. BTW, it took the Dutch PTT years to also become interested in that strange new phenomenon "Internet", get actively involved in it ("money, money, money..."), and get used to it, witness how a famous Dutch cartoonist depicted it.
•  The advent of ADSL and cable-internet at very affordable prices, making broadband internet (the 'digital highway') a commodity.
 
Internet has had a profound effect on society and has deeply pervaded the life of zillions of people. So much so that the abbreviations "DNA" and "SMS" have got brandnew meanings: "Digital Network Addiction" resp. "Social Media Stress". Even so: enjoy it! But be aware that the internet has become a vehicle for the most serious threat to your privacy and personal life, and that criminal organizations - including in particular governments - are watching your traffic all the time.
 
*)  Perhaps the only thing in this context that I'm proud of, is that I haven't become a Google (read: anti-privacy) evangelist like Vint Cerf, the founder of the Internet Protocol.

 


|  hobbies  |

     |   my wife Atie, of course...
|   pc'ing; even with Windows *)
|   old steam pumping stations
|   photography: photos and slideshows
|   handcrafting: ceramics, adornments
|   genealogy
|    ;-)

*) "Windows", "bug" and "virus" are tracemarks of Micro$oft Corporation
   and the US National Securiosity Agency. Here's a way to get rid of them.



|  genealogy  |

Members of the Beertema family, relatives, and others interested in genealogy, in particular genealogy of the province of Groningen, The Netherlands, may want to have a look at the Beertema family tree and its related family trees. By definition these are permanently under construction. Genealogical research has unequivocally shown that the name "Beertema" is unique worldwide and that all people bearing this name are members of one and the same family and stem from one ancestor: Leendert Eppes Beertema, who gave the family its name in 1811.



|  e-security  |

For the e-security-minded here's my PGP public key.
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: PGP Desktop 9.0.3 (Build 2932) mQGiBEODhyERBADa1FyG6+1R16UaNeYwVqUyGaiozbf9aJ26n91hZ72eF9phBX1F l1d7dFwFbqMfTdddjG2KYN4eqQb3NI2FnI+VoQIGFutoX9tqSJkVZ9Jx6xfYu8dA PhqMFzLu7sQDbDTByPTvDYfQmBMapejZBfBeA1A/tjlSnL1rmSwhXm+QQwCg/zZt tFPig6lbS3zBSVKQW11gPJ0D/0s1vjvM4JN5VYjy8k/FHiRUFbC1wqB1ZQuMPOgP 56wZU79cvjo4a/Ke1IeT77Ssi+RoHJtClh4u5gxisKHNihcSeYyuVtIVXPQ7/Skf y22/bcQMNn3dB9Of61VraOrS5Ctx03jbG4BR30APhRVuRNsx0r+IrjvwNx0GwgCX VZp1BADUMkumT0S/LkJUY0UFyCnmE7knCOvJMreQaEotJYCYREZ8Ket1ab2DB6sD EMEGTN9yOCTWTjrXlAEhHWitKbSlwzmtrdRc45O9BIAhgeCN97/e7yxXZIxFwb9c lRxBJdfo178dgoXLS5Ha2i3qe81FLDuu0DTxVQIdxK97+70MGYkAYQQfEQIAIQUC Q45j9QIHABcMgBEfMDZ6KB7Ae2E+DkmH8eZrpK49tQAKCRDW/Oe+k71Gcg0DAKCk GLgLAa4qbN9UbGFCASJ08Cx+WACeNUArV8CkY5YwnxWX+mN3DW4vpcm0MlBpZXQg QmVlcnRlbWEgPHd3dy5nb2RmYXRoZXJvZi5ubC9Ab3B0LWluLmludmFsaWQ+iQBG BBARAgAGBQJDg4esAAoJEIfx5mukrj21034AoKcjEfTMurlnr7KUyN49UtyrTgNN AJ4s0uMxu+VLTirtrhBIhQqtXcn8kohGBBMRAgAGBQJDhYxHAAoJENeMvOVmp0sx BpAAoP/eWA5MxIjp4xNczAdwMPVIGR21AJ9dteVuStD1dvY9GVjOr3i+5eafD4hG BBARAgAGBQJDhdGIAAoJEMSxB5iFeWojjJUAoJQcDHF0mZP6GvMAI56heGucOlW/ AKCwn9qzp8YbNriWPNsGcKtdTGZJ1ohGBBMRAgAGBQJDhekJAAoJECB6EQR5n9GE 4uAAn3GvzbeLKUrc93PVuXiQJNkhAJdJAJ91mId5HqTqd3CnGyC+BMzrsRl4GYhG BBARAgAGBQJDibOJAAoJEI0/MkQFxtt7BosAoI+Jnmylb8BYskqXA/N4CYIV1En2 AKCbPXHkD8SfxTZwCwVCI5PqvpDNIohGBBARAgAGBQJDhwDCAAoJEB2vUOZ1/FDz slUAoIcJrz9/YF4WzG3dAuMRNqRp9RdrAJsFsuXzbSv53HBKZiaEXcsvdRr7AokA RgQQEQIABgUCQ+e+AQAKCRBA92ruYf16FvJjAJ47K2a+hld4Pbc76cWgf8T+DDqI wACdHCfcIqOQZaDS9Gtt/mfUB2O5eoyJAHwEEBECADwFAkPp5fAHCwkIBwMCCgIZ ARkYbGRhcDovL2tleXNlcnZlci5wZ3AuY29tBRsDAAAABR4BAAAABBUICQoACgkQ 1vznvpO9RnKRUACfSgAMABithoyWeBskK+kw7deJun4Anjp9UoICmvRWncFjqgMZ MzCeSl0s0c+D/wAAED4BEAABAXdlZEFsZ29yaXRobf/Y/+AAEEpGSUYAAQEAAAEA AQAA/9sAQwAKBwcIBwYKCAgICwoKCw4YEA4NDQ4dFRYRGCMfJSQiHyIhJis3LyYp NCkhIjBBMTQ5Oz4+PiUuRElDPEg3PT47/9sAQwEKCwsODQ4cEBAcOygiKDs7Ozs7 Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7Ozs7/8AA EQgAkAB4AwEiAAIRAQMRAf/EAB8AAAEFAQEBAQEBAAAAAAAAAAABAgMEBQYHCAkK C//EALUQAAIBAwMCBAMFBQQEAAABfQECAwAEEQUSITFBBhNRYQcicRQygZGhCCNC scEVUtHwJDNicoIJChYXGBkaJSYnKCkqNDU2Nzg5OkNERUZHSElKU1RVVldYWVpj ZGVmZ2hpanN0dXZ3eHl6g4SFhoeIiYqSk5SVlpeYmZqio6Slpqeoqaqys7S1tre4 ubrCw8TFxsfIycrS09TV1tfY2drh4uPk5ebn6Onq8fLz9PX29/j5+v/EAB8BAAMB AQEBAQEBAQEAAAAAAAABAgMEBQYHCAkKC//EALURAAIBAgQEAwQHBQQEAAECdwAB AgMRBAUhMQYSQVEHYXETIjKBCBRCkaGxwQkjM1LwFWJy0QoWJDThJfEXGBkaJico KSo1Njc4OTpDREVGR0hJSlNUVVZXWFlaY2RlZmdoaWpzdHV2d3h5eoKDhIWGh4iJ ipKTlJWWl5iZmqKjpKWmp6ipqrKztLW2t7i5usLDxMXGx8jJytLT1NXW19jZ2uLj 5OXm5+jp6vLz9PX29/j5+v/aAAwDAQACEQMRAD8A8gNCkjofwoPXFKFBxzxnk1CO iw6NS5KjAJrQt9Ju5JBKsRCgjkmrfh3T4pHN1MCdjDaPWuqsNKhtb8XJJw2coxJH Pt0rOUrMTZl6ZpMTXJVlBX1HrWsNDhACltq56kdK0I7eO2mMkQGDzx6+9XGFssQl kmKyDkEgY/AVDkNJnM3VnDCuIVMzZxwOlZ15C9vtHkujHkdwa7QyICPJtzMTzkL1 qzaahagmG5sWRgeSYyR/KlZMTVzz2ILeQnLlHUAYPHPtVZlntCUCknu1em39rpeo IPljiPAV0AB/GuWn02W0vTbyYaFs4kIJOPwov0RDVtDItkS4gzMSMc59ajtpovPa OJiTnAzWtJaxRkxLExbjBIwCPWub8p7e8DDGTk4B6HNO10F7G21kPvFjj+LFUyLP zzGJyT6VHZawwLxtgqTgn0rMvQIL8zxnIJzTSHz6G9LYxkArIQCPzoqouqLJEuTj jtRRqLmRzKKZJAq4yeme9XrTTriacRiIlj7cYqrAVjljMg+UEEkeldxpsCww5iKE khtzZyMjpWknYtO4mm2y2UQwuCvUHgA+tacd2qnzDOpGOhHH51m396jQFBnepyWG MD3NM0XR5L+UXVzkxk4jQHv6n2rJu+5cY3NyK5SR8gkkngKMg/Wuh0jQDdkS3mCD yF24AqPStCEUihkHByT611sAEKBVUYxULUtpJFqxsbS1QbIk4GOgNWiluw+aKPHQ ZAJ/KqYlwc5AFPDhuQRWiaRk0MvNF028haNraMHHDBcHNcfqNjPo05jdRJCR8hxw K7dZCPQ1j+IITcIDjIAqZO2qFY55JIrgRh7eEqOHckdKzdX8G2OpJJLYqiS7cmNj jd9D2qSWOS3cvEh45KnoQK0YLiQxLLGw3xjBwM89aE9Likjx++tZbTUmt5oHgkj4 MRHI98+lQHydxTOT6V6X4h0Wz8RQSSxkRX0YyJCcBz6GvOpoPLOwriVTterTTRnY qLHITgdOworWijt1QGQ4JoplWRj2YDThBt6855BrqUuJQFBXg4GV4FYmjKp3u5yE PAI4NdIWNtAJpANxGVUjIApyLW4lhpz6nqRWaMJbwEGQ5/1h7D6V3uk2UCgEIowM AAcAVzuigfYFkIG5/mJ9fSt+2unjxgDGOa529ToS0N0yLDgqQO1Si43xYBAB6nNZ DzNKvABPX8KDM6IEyASM/hU3aK5bmysysO5xU0UwIBIIrNtWJIBcA1fQxAEliSeu OlNO5EoltZCc4bn3FU7yXJZTzgelTgKqHYSfcmql0jEFgOo60S2M7GNewk4UJkc9 Djr61VtZPszvCckkDIA6jPPNXLlJJJZAFCqAMgHk+9VBGIgpXLKX4JGSOMVUXfQm SsjNvbaaznuiqs8BcTLxnr2ri9f09rS7kvGBCzvwBzg4zXrbWc9zBc+SgdGtisfs 4H6V5tq4kOkb5mwYXJOecdv51VmjJ6o5ec+TCC7ZJ56UVXa+ju1EcigbeAfUUVpY SbRY0SZJIntzw2QR7jvXQX7+a0cQU4wDn8K4/TJTHexMucggYHf1rtzFJL5Ui7Rk cgetOS1NU9DX0tv3QC8BVC4rWi3CQKehFc3pF2rTyxgYKvtIFdKhYqCFBIHGa52t Tog9DRjVRgE8ninGGDeVMhYnjArOa7ljxgENnt2qNrhpJSqPhjg81LNlZmqLhIXA Re/erKXflxhmYAdgDxXP3lyYTmM5YgYA6A96w7q4vZsvcXrRLnOwcEe1JNiaR6LD qMTsSSAc9Sasm5imQqCDkcYrzzSrqacMIoEwp+/czhSR7VtLrKW6bBCiTjpmUFD7 g1TbRk42dzXntmAZnU4JHI9Kz5wsNpHGJCGMmc+gBzWl9qGpWSIjmOQBS7wkcnvT D4diuJUa5uJJARhQ54H1xQmjOSutCTRdRj+0PCJAS+5winqPSud1PRwbKeKe2BWQ M5YHIUknANakWkR2Bke2iAlyQGBOSPaomtpNPvow5kktb5GEiMchHxxiq59QjSvF s8Wv7BoL1ixUgcEr0zRWvd2iytcRyP8ANHMy89SM8UVqpuxyO6djmrab7PMrg/dP au407UrWbymB4I+bHUGuByecY57VYsrlraYOuMjrnv7Vq0nqap20O8sLZbPVZXVz tkwRnue5HtW215K6YtzgAcluAKwdLtrjU3iuoQWh2gOXbGPUD3pbm9ae0iEbExu5 AQcYwcc1zTVtTeDvoWZtQvBIQdQtSgBxtJJB9+Ket3drd27STwtGAN8iHgex96zh DqUwxcS29tbg4AC5J9PxqqtoI2XfvnjM6hgTjHI6CpaVjdNo7+9ltlsFnkjmA6Ah ASPc+1cfrcVzFfODITExBUOO2PavVXtLebSjDw8TJtAI5Ix1Brnf7L+ygwXFr58G MRSocOB7k9alqwk7s4uOw0q9kSS5S4uCBjYCVA/Kurs7a0urZUW3ihEY2rG4ycfX 1p0NpaROFSB2IOcZGPxrYtIw4KiFSoPYYH40m29CnsTafZpaxKEQKuCOuPpU8s0g Q5bIUYAHpQyCJDgkjPAHQe1IBkdMg9qnZmTViLVUuJNEnktGIlWM7CByDVTTLxtR slFzu8yDDE45J4BrZtJBG5V8FW4waqafYiCKeQyMHYsXQjBUDJBq0rtBBpJnjOtx vbeIb+3t8yKZmYH0yehoqx41uvsPiyZkieLzYlkIY5ySM5H1orp5WefP4jiqXPOa Sl7YrU1NCw1O5sbmCRJZCkcgfZuOCQfSvRbS00++tku7SVYhNmQwycAHuARzjNeW AkYx2rsvCt809k9qWO6AZTB5AJ5A9s1nUV1dGkGk9TpDpkABeW5Qg4O1DkA+mahM aTX1uqRnykbLHpn61YhRSpJwTnsKhvJRDkggFBng4z7VzXvodrSsmeiabqFvcQrE WAwoAGOlDRxPIypcoFHGwkcfT1rz3TfEDXkYMEEkLYwc/wA80ltpUt3cLPc6jcuy kkKHwBz6UW7iskdPPqEltcPCqRzxqfvAYI/pUlrqqyMcAAHqKfBbwx2whOct1ZuS T9axr3TrqGUy2hJAOSMVLi+hSa6nRRXKyEgEAEjr3qWN+OAcjtXPaddG6LQyK0cy cgnocdsVrWtwzLucYZRgjNIyn5E13Ifs0uAQyDIIPNVtVM82mSy2xkQyIomck5xx 0q0B5mQTnd1q1DGk8DW8g+WSNozjryCM1Sdmib2R4N4pvDfa1LKkhmSECMPgnheB z6UV7pofhvS9PiXSU05Gs5IyZDMAxkb1JorsTVjld7nzYacKDSgZ6Z4qhbCVs+Gb sW2qruztcFSACT+QrovBfw0vvEYjvbs/ZdOBBLkfNIPRR79jXq+jeFPDvh6Nhpmn B5SCryzYMmDwcH8aJLQE7O5wNvMuAM5yOtVtSMckqx4B45B6VZ1OzfStWuLfYYwj lo8nPyHpzVSePDiXG4MOucYNcTVmd8ZpxDT7fZjLEKDwCTituJoLdy8jAA9SD1rl 7nWzakQwQyPITyWG0D8e9Rrd314qm2t44iAd0jneT9B2pqPcaTa2O1l8U6Tp8RW4 nLHqFAyfwqA622rBWsbKaCMDPmzHBP0ArndG0lTObq4V7mUH/WM2QPcCu0ggIiVj ggjgnqKUrLRA42V2U9JmOwyysDLHKATjqDWmrKJCR1xg/nWfdWzWjEpgBxkmp7Zz 5IkPXGKloz0NKGTMoAIzVqOYJKoAycnms22UAlj361O0oEyhOmOKluwkrm9DMwa3 w+N7hTx2NFVI7ny0gLnnzlzRW6noYSjqfMzDnA69xXdfDrwM/iHURf3eU0y1YF3/ AOeh6hB6+9ZXg7wdeeLNSWCFGitFOZrkjKqPQn1PavoO20+DR7K3s7JES2t0CrGB gMe7H3PWuowbHtILfYkaJEseFSMDAVPTHTJrHvtQeNmKMAM4wKv3TcjByoOSCep9 c1zN3ITLIrZ4OQKlsErlXXQmp2wlYDzozjcP4h2B+lc2QyxtEyggdjW/Ic2UvOcH PFZMw8xd/t2rGSvsdEHZWM1bdCxcqGOc4POKsRiOEApGoZugHWonjZXDLkjOMVNC 8Uk6sRgCsmmdEJ2L9hZzzOGkYRr2A4/Sug8pIwCJSxIAJrIW5AAZeQBjOcUkt+qL 95ifQHNFhyd0X7+RREQ5BHUZqvZSFlLH7o6DtVBpJLrDSMQM8A9SKuI5SMKgwKT2 MkjSWZQhOeaImZpA+DgdKoLIcEE1ftcjALcDmk1c02Q+/u2jt4EBAYzKc0VRvla5 1O1gjJJMm8gdgOp+lFUloYtq51HhPSIPDeiW2lwAE8vLJ/fc9c+3TFat3wjheABk A1EuJLR1UYKnIIHPHShZ47q0MhJ8yM4Pua7jiuUZZfMQN0PQj3rnr4MuoOBgZHet mWRvMc9Mc1laiP8ASo5B1YYOazZaKEQzK0TEEOCOKxwGAkQ9UYjHtWux8udWHGGr P1CLyb9yuQJBnHvUGq0KoXEqlhwGBNNvYY4LrCcAnIHpT5QVXP0qW/QSEPjgYH6V LRSbQxAxGC3FSLGoPYmqoaS2cgDKnkA81IJxIR1BrJm61Lqkbgpwf6VKxAKqeB61 XiPIAI+uKeykDcWJzxUtlpWJwPnwpGDV23kCqWY8AYPuazUJ3gZNXFkOI4l7kA8d cnFUkTN6GppVn5ry37cMcQx57+tFa9rCsLwW4GEgBYj1b1orZR0OJy1P/9mIRgQQ EQIABgUCQ4mzkQAKCRCNPzJEBcbbe8jiAKCMxJUfhugvV3SPRycL0v5EoLXdMwCg +/5MpClKXOP4kosNMmBsCjyobemJAHMEEBECADMFAkPp5fAHCwkIBwMCChkYbGRh cDovL2tleXNlcnZlci5wZ3AuY29tBR4BAAAABBUICQoACgkQ1vznvpO9RnLyfgCf WE3giTbEe8hYFHxtp+xz4RhiOHAAoPLxsUos2CmrvT3iYkUR/KZy3HJ6uQINBEOD hyIQCAD2Qle3CH8IF3KiutapQvMF6PlTETlPtvFuuUs4INoBp1ajFOmPQFXz0AfG y0OplK33TGSGSfgMg71l6RfUodNQ+PVZX9x2Uk89PY3bzpnhV5JZzf24rnRPxfx2 vIPFRzBhznzJZv8V+bv9kV7HAarTW56NoKVyOtQa8L9GAFgr5fSI/VhOSdvNILSd 5JEHNmszbDgNRR0PfIizHHxbLY7288kjwEPwpVsYjY67VYy4XTjTNP18F1dDox0Y bN4zISy1Kv884bEpQBgRjXyEpwpy1obEAxnIByl6ypUM2Zafq9AKUJsCRtMIPWak XUGfnHy9iUsiGSa6q6Jew1XpMgs7AAICB/927uasAcu661BmkvSOX4uZgW++vHDm ueVI84wB1Y1UQ9DzKehLCBS+ljBXkGbJUD7TiNjY8SYDoGUPwATSp1Uh5R+/OQK+ DWP8tmkGh/rQ97lx72JOEb06ofOLF4BpsVjNYE5ZvcMAlevg0k5DMsXHuiBe2Yal p0nOaZSSzM0XS7KrqWyFygZuN2ZLgCgY7fJhZNr+72SilJR5wLk6Me/oBZCFSV6B ZrahdJFCFY/4QS0Eayn6sTOaRSkzAD2peyKqTn3MZe8DmE8wyJy6e4GfzYPjw0LE AQEYQn9gaDLtfqqCAyaf4fs4DwiJPXzGeQ6/HG72gDamDfu3z62W/UWyiQBMBBgR AgAMBQJDg4ciBRsMAAAAAAoJENb8576TvUZyeMYAn0s0fgsD4G2mJ9Qlsf84cMOe V+EWAKCD5L5zidwUDF9bdH9fRG7A/kfRLg== =/40k -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Find this unreadable, but even so can figure out what it says? Okay then, that's how "security through obscurity", in techspeak known as "stealth technology", works. Sort of... ;-)



|  privacy  |

This site doesn't use cookies, nor does it collect personal information.
 
I never publish any of my e-mail addresses. I only give them to others for direct communication with me. Therefore it is strictly forbidden to give them to others without my permission. That includes using them on the so-called 'social' networks to send me invitations. Besides, there's no point in that, because I'm not interested anyway, since I do care about privacy. This also implies that I'll never ever register with the sociomercial media (Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.), and that, if ever a registration under my name would pop up on any of them, it is guaranteed to be a falsification and very likely would be a defacing or defamation attempt.



|  literature  |

Bas Kist domeinnamen.nl ISBN 9789057593932
Peter van Dijk /
   Erik-Jan Gelink
Gekte.com  ISBN 9789025415488
Monique Doppert Internet Pioniers ISBN 9789075727869
Christiaan Alberdingh Thijm  Het nieuwe informatierecht ISBN 9789039522493
Cordula Rooijendijk Alles moest nog worden uitgevonden  ISBN 9789045013671
Martin Wainwright April Fool's Day ISBN 9781845133443



|  statistics  |

You appear to be visitor of this site. Welcome!


contact  |  homepage